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IACM 2023

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Feeling Seen: Eye Gaze Promotes Psychological Safety, Participation, and Voice

Psychological safety is essential for team functioning, but we know less about how leaders can create psychologically safe environments. We demonstrate that increased eye gaze towards employees increases psychological safety and decreases ostracism, which leads to more speaking up. Leader gaze is especially effective for introverted individuals and underrepresented individuals.

Nicole Abi-Esber
Harvard Business School
United States


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