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Witnessing rudeness: Cooperation vs Competition
The present research examines the effect of witnessing another person’s rudeness on negative affect and cooperation. We aim to fill an existing gap in literature regarding the contradicting effects of witnessing aggression (i.e., verbal aggression -- rudeness) on cooperation. Although rudeness is expected to hinder cooperation, we propose that when the witness is empathetic, witnessing another person’s rudeness may enhance cooperation to relieve negative affect. This proposal is examined by two studies.