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The importance of positive emotional expressions and the neutralizing effects of negative emotional expressions in integrative negotiations: A Broaden-and-Build Account
Using the Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions (Fredrickson, 1998), the authors examine the implications of positive emotional expressions on integrative bargaining behaviours and negotiation outcomes. Findings from a telephone negotiation simulation involving graduate-level participants show that positive emotional expressions increase reports of integrative bargaining behaviours and, in turn, lead to higher subjective value, but do not affect deal attainment nor joint outcomes. Comparisons between dyads that reached an agreement and those that did not suggest that while positive emotions promote cooperative interactions and enhance the negotiator’s subjective valuation of the negotiation, negative emotional expressions can neutralize these effects and hinder the ability to reach a deal. Furthermore, the positive relationship between positive emotional expressions and subjective value outcomes is mediated by integrative bargaining behaviours. These findings have important theoretical and practical implications for understanding the role that positive emotions play in enhancing negotiation satisfaction and the desire for maintaining relationships.